Powered By

Skin Design: Jasmine85

Powered by Blogger

P180,181,182 - Bulgaria - Varna, Rila Monastery, Rose


Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral, Varna, Bulgaria




The Rila Monastery, Bulgaria (UNESCO WHS)



The Children dressed in folk costumes in rose valley, Bulgaria




The Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral is the largest and most famous Bulgarian Orthodox cathedral in the Bulgarian Black Sea port city of Varna, officially opened on 30 August 1886. It is the residence of the bishopric of Varna and Preslav and one of the symbols of Varna.

The Monastery of Saint John of Rila, better known as the Rila Monastery is the largest and most famous Eastern Orthodox monastery in Bulgaria. It is situated in the northwestern Rila Mountains, 117 km (73 mi) south of the capital Sofia in the deep valley of the Rilska River at an elevation of 1,147 m (3,763 ft) above sea level.

Founded in the 10th century, the Rila Monastery is regarded as one of Bulgaria's most important cultural, historical and architectural monuments. It is on account of this also a key tourist attraction in Bulgaria and Southeastern Europe as a whole.

The monastery is depicted on the reverse of the Bulgarian 1 lev banknote, issued in 1999.

The monastery complex, regarded as one of the foremost masterpieces of Bulgarian National Revival architecture, was declared a national historical monument in 1976 and became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. Since 1991 it has been entirely subordinate to the Holy Synod of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.

The Rose Valley is a region in Bulgaria located just south of the Balkan Mountains, between them and the eastern part of the lower Sredna Gora chain to the south. Geologically, it consists of two river valleys, those of the Stryama to the west and the Tundzha to the east.

The valley is famous for its rose growing industry which have been cultivated here for centuries, and which produces 85% of the world's rose oil[citation needed]. The extracts are used by perfumeries all over the world. The centre of the rose oil industry is Kazanlak, while other towns of importance include Karlovo, Sopot and Kalofer. Each year, festivals are held celebrating roses and rose oil.

The picking season lasts from May to June. During this period, the area gives off a pleasant scent and is covered with multi-coloured flowers. The gathering process, traditionally a woman's task, requires great dexterity and patience. The flowers are carefully cut one by one and laid in willow-baskets which are then sent to the distilleries.


瓦爾納 (Варна)位於黑海西岸,是保加利亞第三大城市,人口351,552(2006年)。是該國重要的港口、保加利亞海軍的基地,著名的海岸旅遊城市。

瓦尔纳市是欧洲最古老的城市之一,有着悠久而丰富的历史文化。根据考古发现,距今10万前的旧石器古代末期就有史前人类在此活动。公元前7000年,原始人类开始在瓦尔纳地区定居,成为了欧洲大陆最早的居民。该地区的原始文明在公元前4000年的青铜器时代达到了顶峰,拥有当时欧洲东部最大的氏族部落群,发掘出的金饰、青铜工具和陶器做工精美,其工艺水平并不亚于古代埃及。此后,色雷斯人在黑海之滨和瓦尔纳湖周边建立村落。2600年前,希腊人到此建立城镇,并以该地区守护神“奥得萨斯”命名。很快,这里成为了黑海沿岸最重要的商贸文化中心。681年,保加利亚建国,“奥得萨斯”被更名为“瓦尔纳”。中世纪以来,瓦尔纳一直是保加利亚最大的港口、商业中心和滨海首府。

聖母升天大教堂是保加利亞和保加利亞黑海港口城市瓦爾納最大和最有名的東正教大教堂。於1886年8月30日正式對外開放,它是瓦爾納的象徵,現主教居住於此。

里拉修道院是保加利亚著名的古修道院,是巴尔干半岛最大的修道院,位于巴尔干半岛最高山峰里拉山的里奥斯卡山谷中。这座新拜占庭建筑始建于公元 10 世纪中期,是由隐士圣胡安·德里拉建造的,当时这里还曾是巴尔干国家第二个修士团的大本营。修道院原先建在保加利亚第一位圣徒里奥斯基居住过的山洞附近,13世纪—14世纪迁至现址。公元14世纪初期,里拉修道院毁于地震。后来修道院得到重建,并修筑了坚固的城堡。最近一次重建是在 1834~1860 年间。在它的里面至今仍保存着中世纪修道院的遗迹和圣胡安·德里拉的纪念物。1983 年它被列入世界遗产名录。
 
整个建筑都在一条溪流之上,海拔 1200 米,占地 8800 平方米,很像中世纪的城堡,布局严谨。保加利亚里拉修道院的修道士最盛时上万人,后来几百人。现在里面只有8个修道士。半圆形的 4 层楼又分为东西南北四部分,共有 300 多个房间,过去曾经同时供上万名朝圣者在此住宿,其中突出的是北侧的厨房,烟囱高 22米。而柱廊为文艺复兴式。

几个世纪以来,作为保加利亚文艺复兴式建筑的杰作和保加利亚人民的“民族精神的堡垒”,里拉修道院一直都是该国最重要的修道院,在这里甚至还曾兴起过一个著名的文学流派。当土耳其奥斯曼帝国统治时期,它又成了民族的象征。土耳其人入侵时,修道院曾三次被焚,但保加利亚各地的居民向这里运送了大量的石块、木材、灰浆等建筑材料,开始修道院的恢复工作。不久,里拉修道院又重现昔日的风姿,成为保加利亚文艺复兴式建筑的杰作。通过这座修道院,保加利亚人民顽强地抵御了外族的奴化政策,将自己民族旗帜保存下来。

保加利亚人称玫瑰花为“金花”,把它作为国花。这里的玫瑰花主要产于玫瑰谷,玫瑰谷位于巴尔干山脉南部的老林山和森林山之间,长120公里,平均宽约10公里,海拔高约350米,马里查河支流登萨河流贯于其间。玫瑰谷北面,巴尔干峰阻挡了北来寒流,地中海暖流从南部经过,进入了湿润空气,谷内土壤肥沃疏松,给玫瑰花生长提供了有利的条件。
妙峰山盛产玫瑰花,有一条山谷里种满了玫瑰,因此叫玫瑰谷,那里的玫瑰花非常好看,花瓣厚、味香,是加工香精的好材料,用玫瑰花加工的玫瑰油比黄金还贵。

妙峰山最迷人的是它的金顶玫瑰,在我国北方极为少见。在妙峰山海拔800米以上的台地、缓谷中,聚集了大量玫瑰,特别是主峰东南的涧沟村一带尤为兴旺。妙峰山的玫瑰园面积达数百公顷,历史悠久。

17世纪从小亚细亚引种后,繁殖迅速,现满山满谷成了玫瑰的世界。每年5月底到6月中旬,是玫瑰花盛开的季节,此时叶绿花红,竞相吐艳,芬香盈谷,整个谷地就像繁花似锦的巨幅图画。玫瑰花不仅缤纷多彩,供游人观赏,其花瓣经过蒸馏还可以制造高级香料——玫瑰油。由于含油率很低,3000多公斤花瓣才能提炼出1公斤玫瑰油,其价值相当于1.52斤黄金。

现保加利亚生产的玫瑰油产量占世界第一位,出口量约占世界市场的80%左右。每年采摘玫瑰花时节,花农要在谷中举行一周的“玫瑰节”。届时人们身着艳丽的民族时装,载歌载舞,向远方来客赠送花环,播撒玫瑰花瓣,场面热闹非凡。


References sources : wikipedia , 百度百科

Share Bookmark:

4 comments:

Eddy said...

I Jasmine,
Thank you for your visit on my blog.
I suppoe want to trade some postcard of my country ?
See you soon.
Eddy.

Marie Reed said...

Great blog! I love the clip design at the beginning of each post!

jasmine85 said...

Hi,Eddy, Thank you for your comment, I will visit your blog again...

jasmine85 said...

Hi, Marie Reed,
Thank you for loving my design and stopping by at my blog.

Post a Comment

Related Posts with Thumbnails

Sign by Danasoft - Get Your Free Sign

jasmine8559 - View my 'UNESCO' postcards on Flickriver
jasmine8559 - View My 'Wishlist' on Flickriver

Postcards Countries

Svalbard Spain United States of America Antarctica South Georgia Falkland Islands Bolivia Peru Ecuador Colombia Venezuela Guyana Suriname French Guiana Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Argentina Chile Greenland Canada United States of America United States of America Israel Jordan Cyprus Qatar United Arab Emirates Oman Yemen Saudia Arabia Iraq Afghanistan Turkmenistan Iran Syria Singapore China Mongolia Papua New Guinea Brunei Indonesia Malaysia Malaysia Tiawan Philippines Vietnam Cambodia Laos Thailand Burma Bangladesh Sri Lanka India Bhutan Nepal Pakistan Afghanistan Turkmenistan Tajikistan Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Japan North Korea South Korea Russia Kazakhstan Russia Montenegro Portugal Azerbaijan Armenia Georgia Ukraine Moldova Belarus Romania Bulgaria Macedonia Serbia Bosonia & Herzegovina Turkey Greece Albania Croatia Hungary Slovakia Slovenia Malta Spain Portugal Spain France Italy Italy Austria Switzerland Belgium France Ireland United Kingdom Norway Sweden Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Russia Poland Czech Republic Germany Denmark The Netherlands Iceland El Salvador Guatemala Panama Costa Rica Nicaragua Honduras Belize Mexico Trinidad & Tobago Puerto Rico Dominican Republic Haiti Jamaica The Bahamas Cuba Vanuatu Australia Solomon Islands Fiji New Caledonia New Zealand Eritrea Ethiopia Djibouti Somalia Kenya Uganda Tanzania Rwanda Burundi Madagascar Namibia Botswana South Africa Lesotho Swaziland Zimbabwe Mozambique Malawi Zambia Angola Democratic Repbulic of Congo Republic of Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Central African Republic Cameroon Nigeria Togo Ghana Burkina Fassu Cote d'Ivoire Liberia Sierra Leone Guinea Guinea Bissau The Gambia Senegal Mali Mauritania Niger Western Sahara Sudan Chad Egypt Libya Tunisia Morocco Algeria
Map Legend: 26%, 70 of 263 Territories
 Postcards received from 


ArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBelgiumBosnia and HerzegovinaBelarusBrazilBulgariaCanadaChinaChileCyprusDenmarkEgyptIrelandEstoniaCzech RepublicFinlandFranceGuernseyGermanyGreeceHong KongCroatiaHungaryIcelandIndonesiaIndiaIranIsraelItalyJapanKorea, SouthLatviaLithuaniaSlovakiaLuxembourgMacauMontenegroMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMoroccoMauritiusOmanMexicoMalaysiaNetherlandsNorwayNew ZealandPeruPolandPortugalSerbiaRomaniaPhilippinesRussiaSouth AfricaSloveniaSingaporeSpainSwedenSwitzerlandUnited Arab EmiratesThailandTurkeyTaiwanUnited KingdomUkraineUnited StatesUruguayVietnam

Free money making opportunity
Postcards Exchange