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P53 - Ireland - Dublin - The Ha'penny Bridge

The Ha'penny Bridge,Dublin, Ireland

Dublin is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. It is located near the midpoint of Ireland's east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin Region. Founded as a Viking settlement, the city has been Ireland's primary city for most of the island's history since medieval times. Today, it is ranked 10th in the Global Financial Centres Index , is an economic, administrative and cultural centre for the island of Ireland and has one of the fastest growing populations of any European capital city.

Historically, Dublin was the centre of Irish literature, arts, learning, commerce, and industry for many years, with some fine examples of older Dublin shown through the famed Georgian houses and architecture.

Ireland's capital is today home to many thousands of different immigrants, especially from Poland, the UK, China, Nigeria, Australia, Brazil, and the Phillipines. These diverse peoples have immigrated to Dublin due to the high standard of living, and even during the current financial crises, immigration rates are still growing. It is estimated[citation needed] that by 2020, 30% of the people living in the city will be from outside Ireland.

Dublin is one of the oldest cities in Ireland, the oldest being Waterford. It was founded in 988 AD by the Vikings, but historians now believe that there was already an established settlement there called Elbana Civitas, which was situated in the same location (on the River Liffey) as the officially established Viking Dublin. After 40 years of the Viking Kings of Dublin, the Irish recaptured Dublin, and for the next 150 years, it was under Irish control. In 1170, the Earl of Pembroke captured Dublin for the Normans, and it became the capital of the English territory in Ireland, also known as "The Pale". By the early 1600s, Ireland was under full control of England, and Dublin became the capital of the Kingdom of Ireland. The Anglo-Irish parliament was situated in Dublin until the Act of Union 1801, when Ireland joined the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. However, by 1912, Dubliners were on strike, and in 1916, the famous Easter Rising took place. It failed, but after the War of Independence, it became the capital of the Irish Free State. Ever since, it has been growing, and becoming a more richer city.

The Ha'penny Bridge, known later for a time as the Penny Ha'penny Bridge, is a pedestrian bridge built in 1816 over the River Liffey in Dublin, Ireland. Made of cast-iron, the bridge was cast at Coalbrookdale in Shropshire.

Originally called the Wellington Bridge (after the Duke of Wellington), the name of the bridge changed to Liffey Bridge. The Liffey Bridge remains the bridge's official name to this day - though it is still commonly known as the Ha'penny Bridge.

都柏林(英文:Dublin 愛爾蘭語:Baile Átha Cliath)是愛爾蘭共和國的首都以及最大的城市,靠近愛爾蘭島東岸的中心點,位處都柏林郡的麗妃河(River Liffey)河口、都柏林地區的中心。都柏林自中世紀以來一直是愛爾蘭首都城市,也是愛爾蘭島上最大的城市。由於很多高技術企業聚集,所以有歐洲的硅谷之稱。

Dublin這個字起源於愛爾蘭語的Dubh Linn(意為「黑色池塘」)。都柏林的現代愛爾蘭名Baile Átha Cliath(意為「蘆葦障礙做成的淺灘之城」)則是指在黑色池塘旁邊的定居地。

都柏林市中心刚好被丽妃河分成南北两块,连接两地的十数座大小不一、造型各异的桥也是都柏林的特色之一。半分桥(Ha´penny Bridge)是都柏林的地标之一,原本叫做威灵顿桥,是庆祝他在滑铁卢打胜仗,但由于过桥费要收半分钱(half penny),所以后来被称为半分桥。

References sources : wikipedia

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