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P223 - France- Le Mont Saint- Micheal


Le Mont Saint- Micheal, France ( UNESCO WHS )




Le Mont-Saint-Michel (English: St Michael's Mount) is a rocky tidal island and a commune in Normandy, France. It is located approximately one kilometre off the country's north coast, at the mouth of the Couesnon River near Avranches.

Le Mont-Saint-Michel was previously connected to the mainland via a thin natural land bridge, which before modernization was covered at high tide and revealed at low tide. This has been compromised by several developments. Over the centuries, the coastal flats have been polderised to create pasture. Thus the distance between the shore and the south coast of Mont-Saint-Michel has decreased. The Couesnon River has been canalised, reducing the flow of water and thereby encouraging a silting-up of the bay. In 1879, the land bridge was fortified into a true causeway. This prevented the tide from scouring the silt round the mount.

The Mont-Saint-Michel and its bay were added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1979, as they rank very high on such World Heritage Site criteria as cultural, historical, and architectural significance, as well as human-created and natural beauty.


聖米歇爾山(Mont-Saint-Michel)是法国诺曼底附近,距海岸约1公里的岩石小岛。地理坐标为 48° 38′ 8″ N, 1° 30′ 40″ W. 是法國旅遊勝地,也是教徒的朝聖地,山頂建有著名的聖米歇爾修道院。圣米歇尔山及其海湾于1979年被聯合國教科文組織列為世界文化及自然遺產。

古時為凱爾特人祭神的地方。

708年,阿夫朗什镇(Avranches)主教奥伯特(Aubert)遇天使長米歇爾显灵,并在其脑颅上点开一个洞,因此在島上最高處修建一座小教堂,奉獻給天使長米歇爾,成為朝聖中心,故稱米歇爾山。

9世纪,维京人入侵欧陆,这里成为农民的避难所,修道院下方形成一个小镇。

966年,诺曼底大公查理一世驱逐了里面的教士,代之以来自意大利卡西诺山修道院的30名本笃会修士。

1211年—1228年間,在島北部又修建了一個以梅韋勒修道院為中心的6座建築物,具有中古加洛林王朝古堡和羅馬式建筑的風格。

13世纪初,腓力二世 (法兰西)火攻圣米歇尔山,致使修道院北侧建筑严重损毁。同时诺曼底并入法国领土。战后法王拨资修建,在原有的罗曼式建筑之外加盖了哥特式建筑,使这里成为诺曼底境内最具规模的宗教建筑群,朝圣人数更盛。

1421年,罗曼式地下祭坛塌陷。英法百年战争后,复以火焰哥特式重建唱诗班席和圣坛。

1469年法王路易十一在此制定了聖米歇爾王詔。

1622年,修道院中的教士遭到流放,取而代之的是圣本笃修会的一支圣摩尔(Saint-Maur)教团。

法国大革命时期,修士因不支持共和政府而遭到监禁,教会财产被拍卖,中殿被用来储存粮草。在这里囚禁过数以万计的罪犯和政敌。王政复辟后稍为恢复生机。

1874年,法国政府投入大笔经费进行为期百年的大规模复修工程。已筑起一条4公里长的堤道连接对岸陆地。

島上現還存有11世紀羅馬式中殿和15世紀哥特式唱詩班席、13~15世紀的部分城牆和哥特式修道院圍牆等。每年9月29日的圣米歇尔主保日举办庆祝活动。


References sources : wikipedia

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3 comments:

百里幻雲 said...

看上去很神聖的地方~~

Caraprince said...

站在入口的地方看, 應該很壯觀吧?
真希望能親自去看看這地方~

Jasmine said...

有机会我也想去看看這地方 :)

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