Hohenzollern Castle, Stuttgart, Germany
Hohenzollern Castle (German: Burg Hohenzollern) is a castle, about 50 km south of Stuttgart, Germany, considered home to the Hohenzollern family that came to power during the Middle Ages and ruled Prussia and Brandenburg until the end of World War I.
The castle is located on top of Mount Hohenzollern at an elevation of 855 meters, above Hechingen and close to Bissingen in the Swabian Alb. It was originally constructed in the first part of the 11th century. It was completely destroyed after a 10-month siege in 1423 by the imperial cities of Swabia.
A second, larger and sturdier castle was constructed from 1454 to 1461 and served as a refuge for the Swabian Hohenzollern family during wartime, including during the Thirty Years' War. By the end of the 18th century, however, the castle was thought to have lost its strategic importance and gradually fell into disrepair, leading to the demolition of several dilapidated buildings. Today, only the chapel remains from the medieval castle.
The third version of the castle, which stands today, was constructed by King Friedrich Wilhelm IV between 1846 and 1867, under the direction of Oberhofbaurat Stühler, who based his design on English Neo-Gothic style as well as the castles in Loire. Because the castle was built to be merely a family memorial, no member of the Hohenzollern family took residence in this third castle until 1945, when it became home to the last Prussian Crown Prince Wilhelm. Prince Wilhelm and his wife Crown Princess Cecilie are buried there.
Among the historical artifacts of Prussian history contained in the castle today are the Crown of Wilhelm II and some of the personal effects of Frederick the Great and a letter from US President George Washington thanking Baron von Steuben, a scion of the House of Hohenzollern, for his service in the American Revolutionary War. The castle is today a popular tourist destination.
1267年被稱為Zollern城堡，當時因身處軍事要塞而擴建進而成為German領地的軍事重地，被封為Swabia的眾城之王。１１８８年因為Frederick III. von Zollern娶Nuremberg大公國的女兒進而繼承其嶺地及封號，其Henzollern家族便成為二個支係；Swabia和Franconian Swabia家系成為城堡的真正擁有者，而Franconia族系靠著繼承和聯姻在１５世紀時成為神聖羅帝國時期Brandenburg的選侯。１７０１年Frederick III建立普魯士王國，並發動普法戰爭，１８７１年William I 建立強大的德意志帝國。
同時Swabia族系在１４２３年因繼承權的問題陷入家族內鬥而損毀，１４５４年由Count Jost Nicholas von Zollern重建，馬蹄型的部份及北塔和南塔；向陽方位的St.Michael's 小教堂完成於１４６１年至今。
１６２３年時 Hoenzollern城堡因城堡公爵遷往新的Hechingen皇宮和Sigmaringen居住，而老的Hohenzollern城堡便成為戰爭時的避難所，當３０年戰爭時不斷的增建漸形堅固，１６６７－－１７７１年此地為奧地利的軍事要塞中心，１８１９年Prussia國王William IV在度返回拜訪此城堡，才重新思考重建計劃，由Rudolf vonStillfried展開家族的尋根重建，１８４６年由Prussia家族負擔２／３的經費Swabia家系負擔１／３經費。
References sources : Wikipedia, blog.liontravel.com